music

Gandhara in Darbari Kanada, the mother of all shrutis?

Posted on February 26, 2015. Filed under: Computer analysis, cultural musicology, intonation, music, musician | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , |

Post created 26 Feb 2015, last updated 24 January 2017. On my academia.edu page there is a pdf of this post, but it is not updated as often as this web page.

Possibly the most famous of all shrutis of Hindustani classical music is the komal gandhara (ga, minor third [1]) of Darbari. It is often said to be ati-komal (extra flat), which would supposedly mean it is lower than an also supposedly ‘normal’ komal ga (Levy 1982: 109 cites Vilayat Khan, see also Parrikar 2000; my teacher Dilip Chandra Vedi considered this to be common knowledge, although there are some authors who seem unfamiliar with this notion). There are not a great number of such widely recognised ‘shrutis‘ –  we have the ga and dha of Darbari kanada, the re of Bhairav, the ni of Bhimpalasi and Miyan ki Malhar, the ga of Todi and perhaps a few more. Most musicians will agree that there is something the matter with these notes, that they are not found in the harmonium, and will say ‘this is the shruti of gandhara in Darbari’. When it is performed ‘correctly’ it will elicit great approval from the audience, marked by interjections such as ‘wah wah‘ (wah wah), ‘kya bat’ (you [don’t] say) and even the very explicit ‘yeh to Darbari ka gandhara [shruti] hai‘ (this really is [the shruti of] Darbari’s gandhara). [for a brief explanation of the names of the notes and their abbreviations in Hindustani music see the “note” at the bottom of this page].

There are probably no two artists who perform this ga in Darbari in exactly the same way, and I proffer that the individual touch in rendering it adds to the wealth, beauty and meaning of the musical repository that we refer to as raga Darbari Kanada. In a very early article by Arnold, Bor and myself it was suggested there are two main ways of producing it, a soft undulating way that creeps from Re to ga, and a more jagged style that descends from ma (Arnold, Bor, van der Meer 1985).

asadali

Fig. 1: The soft undulation style that meanders upward from re to komal ga as played by Asad Ali Khan on the bin.

amir

Fig. 2: The jagged style, descending from ma and then twice from shuddh ga, finishing with the movement ma-re as sung by Amir Khan.

faiyaz_bhimsen

Fig. 3: A near straight rendering of ga by Faiyaz Khan and Bhimsen Joshi.

A third way of rendering ga (fig 3) is really rarely heard, most musicians prefer to use the various ways of undulating or shaking the ga. This is called andol (andolit, andolan), literally meaning swing. Still, I have it on the authority of my teacher Dilip Chandra Vedi (who was a disciple of Faiyaz Khan, Bhaskar Rao Bakhle, Alladiya Khan and Uttam Singh) that the near-straight, and extra flat (ati komal), rendering of the ga in Darbari was the hallmark of great masters. There is something to be said for this, if at all we accept the idea that the shruti of ga in Darbari has anything to do with pitch it is rather confusing if that pitch is not steady at all. Jairazbhoy states that “certain musicians use the term shruti to indicate the subtle intervals produced as a result of this oscillation in pitch. They do however, maintain that these microtonal deviations from the ‘standard’ intonation may only be used in oscillation and may not be sustained as a steady note” (Jairazbhoy 1971: 35). In this light it is interesting to recall an anecdote relating to the Dutch composer Ton de Leeuw (1926-1996). In a conference about the meeting of East and West in music Ton de Leeuw explained how he had used shrutis (microtones) in one of his compositions. He told us that one of the difficulties of performing the piece was that the musicians had to produce very steady straight sounds on their instruments to bring the shrutis to life. They were not used to this, as they add vibrato to steady notes. I brought up the point that in reality, shrutis in Hindustani music were never produced as straight notes, they were always ornamented by undulations or glides. De Leeuw vehemently rejected this idea as totally impossible. At that time the famous sitar player Imrat Khan entered the auditorium and joined the discussion. To the surprise and dismay of Ton de Leeuw Khansaheb confirmed my interpretation. I will come back to this in a moment.

The article in which we published the above graphs was part of an ongoing debate between Nazir Ali Jairazbhoy and his disciples on the one hand and the ISTAR team of Bel, Arnold and myself on the other. Jairazbhoy had published an article with Stone in 1963 in which he challenged the very core of the idea of shruti. In 1982 Jairazbhoy’s disciple Mark Levy published a study in which he revisited the research of Jairazbhoy and Stone. He too concluded that the shruti story was nothing but myth and mysticism. It is worth while to cite Levy on the ati komal ga of Darbari:

A number of performers have difficulty in reconciling the two practices [high and low interpretation of ga]. One of today’s most well-known and respected sitar players for example, states that the Ga♭ and the Gha♭ [sic; he obviously means Dha♭] of Darbari are atikomal or very flat (taped interview […]). As seen in Appendix D, nos. 10-12, however this prominent sitarist intones the Ga♭ extremely sharp rather than flat. The artist is thus paying verbal homage to a more traditional style, while actually performing the more contemporary one. (109)

A daring conclusion indeed, and a typical example of ethnomusicological arrogance and conceit. Ethnomusicologists had often proclaimed that ‘indigenous’ (read ignorant) musicians would pay lip-service to ancient and obsolete theories while practicing completely different musical realities, a heritage of ethnological thought. The real problem here is that Levy takes for granted that the intonation of ga by the respected sitarist (Vilayat Khan) is the average of his measurements. Levy produces a table with low, high and average positions of the andol. The low measurements of three different instances are 294, 269 and 284 cents, the high 344, 344 and 414. The averages are 319, 307 and 349. The question is what led Levy to believe that the average is the ‘real’ performed intonation? Did he ask the sitar player? Clearly not. Moreover, it is very doubtful that the measurements of an andol with the technical means at his disposal were at all reliable. For measuring pitch with the strobotuner it needs to be steady for at least half a second. But andols are by nature never steady. We argued in the 1985 article mentioned above (Arnold, Bor, van der Meer) that andols are made on top of the base pitch, which would mean we should take Levy’s low measurements. But even that I would reject completely now, because there never is a steady pitch, and the low positions vary quite a lot. So if there is no measurable pitch there cannot be a contradiction between theory and practice as the citation of Levy suggests. To suggest that Vilayat Khan is saying one thing but practicing another is therefore also not warranted. The sharp ear and equally sharp and analytical mind of Vilayat Khan (whom I have personally known reasonably well) would not easily slip into such contradictions. I frankly believe that Vilayat Khan truly thought of komal ga in Darbari as being extra low. If ever there was a musician with an extraordinary command of tunefulness and intonation on the sitar it was Vilayat Khan. And a discrepancy between thought and measurement is in no way a confirmation of contradiction between theory and practice.

Levy further concluded there was no consistency in intonation among artists and even in the performances of a single artist. Arnold, Bel and myself were furious as we strongly believed that Hindustani music essentially followed the system of intonation as laid down two thousand years ago by Bharata and as reinterpreted by Paterson, Deval, Clements and Fox-Strangways (see Rao and van der Meer 2010 for a discussion of these theories). Briefly summarised this theory holds that Hindustani music used just intonation in which every semitone except sa and pa can have a high (pythagorean) position or a low (harmonic) position. In this theory, the minor whole tone (182 cents) is supposed to be a three shruti interval, while the major whole tone (204 cents) would be a four shruti interval. The difference between these two (a comma of 22 cents) would then be the so-called pramana shruti (the basic shruti). Jairazbhoy & Stone and later Levy demonstrated with a number of examples that this theory was not tenable. Jairazbhoy concluded that intonation in Hindustani music was really closer to equal temperament (ET) than to the supposed interpretation of just intonation. The ISTAR team, to which I belonged, dismissed the findings of Jairazbhoy and Stone and of Levy. We considered the measurements inaccurate as they were done with methods that were – at least in our opinion – outdated. We also challenged the interpretations by Jairazbhoy’s disciple Levy. In particular, he had taken the pitch of the ga in Darbari to be the average of the oscillating movement, looking in particular at the jagged type of andol that undulates between ma and ga (as in Fig. 2). We argued that the oscillation is supposed to have its lowest point as the ‘intended’ pitch, not the average. Levy’s argument for using the average was that this had been shown to be the case of perceived pitch in vibrato. However, it can be demonstrated that this is only true for vibratoes with at least 5 oscillations per second, whereas the andol of Darbari has approximately 2 undulations per second or less. In such a case we actually perceive a rising and falling pitch, not an average.

In the following years I left the question of Darbari’s ga aside and dug into hundreds of performances to measure intonation in different ragas, in different performances and by different artists. The ISTAR team had criticised Jairazbhoy, Stone and Levy’s methods of measuring pitches, but our approach was also dubious. In the course of those years I studied theories of pitch perception and their implementation in pitch extraction software. I first started by developing PitchXtractor, based on algorithms used in Leiden and Amsterdam and implemented in the LVS software. I also used the LVS software itself to compare results. Later I started using PRAAT, which currently may be one of the best systems for pitch extraction.

My findings were at best inconclusive. In an article published in the Ratio Book (2000) I showed that the just intonation model could not possibly be maintained, as Jairazbhoy had argued earlier. Intonation showed a tremendous amount of variability. At the same time, it was clear that Jairazbhoy’s theory of an approximation of ET ± 50 cents was too crude. My extensive measurements showed that in performances where the tanpuras were tuned in pa-tuning musicians produced some pitches that were very precise and very close to just intonation. Pa (the fifth) would have 702 cents with a standard deviation of the mean of half a cent. Re similarly had 204 cents with a few cents standard deviation of the mean. Ga turned out to average on 390 cents, not the expected 386 cents, but certainly not the 400 cents of ET. All that is not very surprising, because a tanpura in pa-tuning gives very powerful partials of the perfect fifth (702), the (pythagorean) major second (204) and the (harmonic) major third (386). But all other notes showed much less consistency. In ma-tuning the major sixth was certainly harmonic, but in pa-tuning it turned out to be almost 900 cents (ET). Komal ga, ma and komal ni were all over the place. Interestingly komal re, shuddh ni, tivra ma and komal dha were quite stable at positions that were best described as ‘close to ET’. Generally they are between 90 and 100 cents below or above the tonic and the dominant. But all these intonations were never the object of much interest of musicians. These were ‘common notes’, there was nothing very special about them. What they were interested in, and where the applied the term ‘shruti‘ were those ragas (and a few more) I mentioned in the beginning. And as I recounted in relation to the anecdote about Ton de Leeuw, none of those pitches were steady. It dawned on me that what musicians refer to as shrutis simply isn’t about pitch ratios, about fixed or fixable pitches. In our ISTAR article we had drawn attention to the consistency of tonal shapes, the way pitches are moving between the notes, in tonal space, but we didn’t go the next step, which was to realise that the whole debate with Jairazbhoy was totally moot. It is moot because of the confusion between shruti as a measure of pitch (as in frequency ratios) and shruti as a exploration of tonal space.

Now whether shruti really ever was a measurement of pitch is not clear. Probably it was in Bharata’s time, as he discusses it in relation to tunings of the harp (vina). But he gives no ratios, no string lengths, it is all done by ear. So if it was a measurement it probably was not a measurable measurement :). But the very exploration of tonal space (and please let us not call this ornamentation, and let us not discuss it as deviation from a presumed ‘correct’ or ‘standard’ pitch) is one of the most remarkable inventions of Hindustani music. In the following I will show how Uday Bhawalkar explores the space of ga in Darbari in a short alap and dhrupad he recorded for the AUTRIM project at NCPA. The full piece can be heard (with an introduction and commentary) at http://autrimncpa.wordpress.com/darbari-kanada/.

Before this a brief note on the artist, Uday Bhawalkar. Uday is by now one of the best representatives of the Dagar style of dhrupad singing. He learned his art during long years of training with the brothers Zia Fariduddin Dagar (1932-2013) and Zia Moiuddin Dagar (1929-1990). Both were known for their excellent command of the art of dhrupad and their profound knowledge of tone, tonality and intonation. The latter especially, as a vina player (binkar), knew the infinite space of tone like no one else in India. My own teacher, Pandit Dilip Chandra Vedi, who upheld very high standards in the art of Hindustani music, had the highest respect for Zia Moiuddin Dagar , which was quite exceptional as he generally considered the younger generations badly trained and incompetent. In passing I might add that apart from Zia Moiuddin Dagar he was content with very few musicians of that generation, the main exception being Kishori Amonkar, whom we know indeed as an inimitable titan of music. The vina, with its long strings is almost like a microscope of microtonality, and it is no coincidence that shruti is discussed in the two thousand years old Natya Shastra by Bharata in the section on instrumental music. Uday fully assimilated this understanding of tonal space from his teachers.

Before entering into a detailed discussion of gandhara in Uday’s Darbari we will take a brief look at a tonagram from his full recording.

uday darbari full

Fig. 4.: Tonagram of Uday Bhawalkar’s Darbari Kanada, recorded at NCPA, Mumbai, 2010.

What strikes immediately is that the peaks, which represent the notes S (0), R (2), g (3), m (5), P (7), d (8), n (10) [for a brief note on the note names in India see the bottom of this page] are mostly discrete with exception of the space between R and g, two notes that are much more glued together. The tonagram is a representation of the frequency with which each measurement of pitch occurs [for more information on tonagrams and how they are created see my Praat manual for musicologists. As we can see S (0) is the most used pitch, followed by R (2), P (7) en M (5) in that order and then g (3), d (8) and n (10). It is also evident that S, R, m and P are more distinct peaks, i.e. these notes are used more as steady straight pitches. In a close-up we can also see that these pitches are probably just intonation, conforming the ideas I stated above in relation to tanpura tuning.

uday darbari ni-ma

Fig. 5: The section from n to m stretched horizontally.

Here we can see that the interval S-R is quite precisely 204 cents, distinctly more than the tempered 200 cents. What is more striking however is that gaussian distribution of g has an average of 275 cents, with a special peak, that we can consider the mode at 260 cents. Now we may start fantasising about ati komal ga, but as I will demonstrate in the following talking about the mean or mode makes no sense whatsoever.


Movie 1: Uday Bhawalkar Darbari kanada fragment 1

In this first fragment there is no ga as such, we hear twice a small twirl that suggests R-gSR- (at 196 and 198 sec) and then at the end of the phrase R-gRSnd- (203). As is evident from the graph what I have written as ga here is really and ever so slight rising from R, it is as if the voice wants to take off from R but is kept down by gravity. Or perhaps these are pains of labour of a ga that is about to be born.


Movie 2: Uday Bhawalkar Darbari kanada fragment 2

The second fragment is the andol shruti of gandhar in Darbari in its first stage of unfolding. At 229 the melody starts creeping up from R very slowly to a point some 35 cents below ga and then meanders very slowly in five consecutive undulations that shift slightly upward every time ending with the obligatory oblique mSR- movement.  In this particular phrase it becomes clear at once that there simply is no single pitch whatsoever that we could pinpoint as the measurement of ga. Both the low point and the high point of the five undulations are going slightly upward, and so of course is the average or whatever pitch you might want to select. And yet, much as musicians do, I would say this is the true shruti of gandhar in Darbari. Etymologically shruti means that which is heard, and in musicology it is generally considered that this refers to the smallest interval that we can meaningfully distinguish. However, shruti has another and more important meaning, which is the revelation (of the Vedas), also in the sense of being heard. And it is in this sense that I suggest we should understand the shruti of ga in Darbari. This second fragment is indeed the revelation of this wonderful phenomenon of ga in which not only the tonal space between R and g is revealed as a universe of which the boundaries are ever expanding, but also a revelling of the voice that is exploring the sheer infinity of the liminal dissonant interval.


Movie 3: Uday Bhawalkar Darbari kanada fragment 3

In the third section the opening is again the slow and meticulous meandering of the voice between R and g, but now the melody recedes back into the netherworlds of mandra saptak. Reculer pour mieux sauter!


Movie 4: Uday Bhawalkar Darbari kanada fragment 4

And indeed in the next fragment the same movement between R and g is now followed by a straight m (and subsequently P). Herewith the exploration of the shruti of g has been completed in the ascending progression. It should be noted that the recordings that were made for the AUTRIM project were supposed to be succinct, without sacrificing essential elements of raga delineation. In passing it should be explained that a full exposition of the slow alap (intro) would normally take at least half an hour and could be stretched to a full hour, especially in a ‘big’ raga like Darbari. Teachers and musicologists have attempted to simplify and summarise the information necessary  to define the raga. At its most compact this would consist of an ascending and a descending line (in Darbari S R g m P d n S’, S’ d n P g m R S. Most musicians are not satisfied with such a rudimentary definition and prefer a slightly longer summary of important phrases known as chalan (route, way of going around in the raga). For the AUTRIM project we asked musicians to go one step further and demonstrate the raga in a more complete format, while not expanding it fully. As a result, what Uday has revealed here in four phrases would normally require many more, ever varying, ever discoursing statements of the raga.


Movie 5: Uday Bhawalkar Darbari kanada fragment 5

The fifth instance is a reiteration of the fourth, but now with a sweeping onset S/P\SR- and a more solid transfer from m to P at the end (not part of the sound file segment, but visible in the graph). The whole phrase has become slightly more relaxed, as if the first adventurous steps have now been consolidated.


Movie 6: Uday Bhawalkar Darbari kanada fragment 6

The sixth fragment pushes the exploration of the gamut further beyond P (the fifth) and towards the high octave, but before actually consummating high S a return to the space of g postpones the completion of the octave. Since now the g is coming from far above, the whole movement starts from m, or rather from shuddh G (the major third) instead of R. Also, the undulations are slightly broader, more daring, and on the whole a little higher. Again, if we would have to discuss this g in the light of pitch measurements we would be at a loss. Not only is there no steady or fixed pitch that we can pinpoint as the ‘true’ position of g, but moreover the whole constellation g is demonstrably higher than in the earlier fragments. And if it can have two distinct pitch ranges how can we (re)define these in terms of shrutis with a fixed pitch ratio?


Movie 7: Uday Bhawalkar Darbari kanada fragment 7

The underlying concept of the seventh fragment is very similar to the sixth, just giving some different twist to the basic statement.


Movie 8: Uday Bhawalkar Darbari kanada fragment 8

Finally, the eighth fragment initiates the return to the tonic after having completed the full exploration of the octave, including high S. Again g is approached with a broad movement that swoops down from n straight to shuddh G, where a slow mind (glissando) to R starts and then undulates rapidly and with just two waves to end in g.

It might be useful here to listen again to the whole recording (see link above) up to the point where the composition begins (with accompaniment by the pakhavaj drum).


Movie 9: Uday Bhawalkar Darbari kanada fragment 9; g in the composition (first cycle)


Movie 10: Uday Bhawalkar Darbari kanada fragment 10; g in the composition (second cycle)

I have included the g from the first two cycles of the composition (pada) showing yet another angle of rendering this characteristic note. The composition’s lyrics consist of the names of the notes sung to those notes with some of the inflections and structural elements that typically belong to those notes. Ga in this case takes on a dramatic appearance as it rise up from a full octave below in a very slow glissando movement, followed again by the usual undulations. The similarity between the ‘faces’ of these movement is evident in the image below, where they have been superimposed with a vertical shift.

gandhara in pada

Fig. 6: The ga’s from the first two cycles of the composition superimposed.

The recording discussed above was a studio recording, with, as stated before, the aim to give the briefest possible overview of Darbari’s main features. In a live, full fledged recording of Darbari the gandhara spacetime will expand more. A small impression of the what could happen and what has is this rendering of Darbari Kanada by the inimitable Faiyaz Khan (1886-1950)[2]. I already mentioned that Faiyaz Khan would make the andol on ga very shallow so take a quick look at the tonagram of this section:

Faiyaz Khan Darbari selection tonagram

Tonagram of the excerpt of Darbari Kanada by Faiyaz Khan. Notice how both Re and ga are low! (if you cannot see the vertical dotted lines please click on the picture and see it full size).

My main aim in discussing gandhara  in Darbari with the example of Uday Bhawalkar’s recording for the AUTRIM project has been to clarify the nature of shruti. In the process I may have overstressed the idea that the exploration of tonal space in time is a phenomenon that has immediate and intrinsic meaning. Undoubtedly one of the hallmarks of this kind of music is its slow and deliberate magnification of the very spaciousness of the tonal universe. What would seem to be such a small step as a semitone is expanded to enormous proportions. But this is not to say that that’s all there is to it, such would be a Hanslickian reduction. In the next article I will come back to the ramifications of meaning that are inherent in this piece of music.

Notes:

  1. The note names in Hindustani music are Sadja, Rsabha, Gandhara, Madhyama, Pancama, Dhaivata and Nishada. These are abbreviated to Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha and Ni or further to S, R, G, M, P, D, N. In this article low positions of the semitones are in lowercase, the higher positions in uppercase: S r R g G m M P d D n N, roughly corresponding to C, Db, D, Eb, E, F, F#, G, Ab, A, Bb, B (assuming that Sa would be C, which is not necessarily the case).
  2. Faiyaz Khan, Classical Songs by Great Masters, Hindusthan Records, EP LH.33, Side one track one, ND.

Bibliography:

Arnold, W. J., Bor, J., & van der Meer, W. (1985). On Measuring Notes, A response to N.A.Jairazbhoy. ISTAR Newsletter, 3-4, 46-51. [download at http://members.ziggo.nl/wvandemeer/archives/istar/ISTAR3-4.pdf]

Jairazbhoy, N A, and A. W. Stone. (1963) “Intonation in Present-day North Indian Classical Music.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 26:119-132.

Jairazbhoy, N.A. (1971) The Rags of North Indian Music. London: Faber and Faber.

Levy, Mark. (1982) Intonation in North Indian Music: A Select Comparison of Theories with Contemporary Practice. Biblia Impex.

Parrikar, Rajan P. (2000) The Kanada Constellation (Part 1/3). http://www.parrikar.org/hindustani/kanada/ accessed 4 Feb 2015.

Rao, S., & Meer, W. (2010). Construction, deconstruction and reconstruction of shruti. In J. Bor, F. Delvoye, & E. Te Nijenhuis (Eds.), Hindustani music: Thirteenth to twentieth centuries (pp. 673-696). New Delhi: Manohar.

Van der Meer, W. (2000) “Theory and Practice of Intonation in Hindusthani Music.” Pp. 50-71 in The Ratio Book, Ed. C. Barlow. Köln: Feedback Papers.

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The art of music

Posted on December 9, 2012. Filed under: cultural musicology, music |

Before reading this post you may want to orient yourself: Music and Art in the Urban Dictionary. Notice there are 150+ contributions on music, and only 50+ on art. Also, the number of likes and dislikes on music runs into many thousands, whereas art gets a few hundreds.

Music

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Music is an art form whose medium is sound. Common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike), “(art) of the Muses.”

Wikipedia is in broad company; in many encyclopedias and musicological literature the strange mistake is made to call music an art. The problem is simple. In the case of language we wouldn’t dream of calling language an art. Literature, poetry, both written and oral, perhaps, possibly, arguably. But language no way. The same should be applied to music. However, in the case of music we do not have two different words to refer to the general phenomenon and the specific one. And what makes this specific one an art? Certainly not that it is “art music”. Because art music is yet a more specific thingy. Let’s get to the bottom of this terminology:

Art (noun)

  1. the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power: “the art of the Renaissance” | “great art is concerned with moral imperfections” | “she studied art in Paris”.
    1. works produced by such skill and imagination: “his collection of modern art” | “an exhibition of Tibetan art” | [as adj. ] “an art critic”.
    2. creative activity resulting in the production of paintings, drawings, or sculpture : “she’s good at art”.
  2. ( the arts) the various branches of creative activity, such as painting, music, literature, and dance: “the visual arts” | [in sing. ] “the art of photography”.
  3. ( arts) subjects of study primarily concerned with the processes and products of human creativity and social life, such as languages, literature, and history (as contrasted with scientific or technical subjects): “the belief that the arts and sciences were incompatible” | “the Faculty of Arts”.
  4. a skill at doing a specified thing, typically one acquired through practice : “the art of conversation”.

The apple dictionary does the same thing under 2. Music is in the same row as literature. And so are dance and painting. I spent a few days painting the bathroom walls. I’ve been dancing all night. Art? In 1 and 2 there is reference to creativity, creative activity, creative skill (what’s that?), imagination. Under 3 also there is reference to creativity but in the expression “creativity and social life” it becomes very vague. And isn’t history a bit odd here? With 4 we get a completely different turn: “a skill acquired through practice”. I’m surprised that these definitions put little stress on aesthetics. I would call music, dance, painting, photography an art when the people who practice them have a conception of aesthetics and when there is skill involved. I don’t say that this is necessarily a watertight definition, but it should play a role. The yet more specific term “art music” is a particularly narrow socio-cultural phenomenon that we find in societies with a considerable degree of labour specialization in which there are specialists who devote themselves (almost) entirely to the refining of skills within a framework of aesthetics.And evidently, with this distinction there is a lot of music (and painting, dancing, photography) that is not art and is not meant to be art. In fact, it doesn’t want to be art. Painting walls doesn’t really interest me profoundly (though the combining of colours can be art for sure), but all music interests me as a musicologist. In the same way a linguist is interested in language in a general way.

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Expressive vocalisms in Kesar Bai’s Lalita gauri

Posted on December 8, 2012. Filed under: music, musician |

Illustrations of expressive moments in Kesar Bai Kerkar’s famous recording of Lalita Gauri (1956). It is on the basis of audience response (interjections like “vah vah”) that we consider these moments particularly emotive.

movie 1: Pitch plot done with PRAAT of Kesar Bai Kerkar’s Lalitagauri 125-145s (vertical axis: semitone scale position x 100 cents, horizontal axis: time in seconds).

The first passage occurs around 140 seconds from the beginning of the recording. The ‘wah’ at the end follows immediately after the passage that goes from the major seventh through the extremely low minor second (143-44s) and ending on the tonic. The minor second is lower than 50 cents as we can well see in the graph, and as such could be considered a raised tonic. However, within the tradition, experts will say, “this the shruti of komal rishabh” (the microtonal lowering of the minor second). Theories about such microtonal positions are innumerable, the minor second being postulated by different authors at 70, 90 and 112 cents (Daniélou, 1968; Clements, 1913), though never as low as 50 cents. As has been demonstrated by several authors (van der Meer, 2000; Levy, 1982; Jairazbhoy and Stone, 1963) those postulations are indeed no more than postulations (for a discussion of the history of these notions see Rao and van der Meer, 2010). However, that the ‘essence’ (I am taking the liberty of using this literal translation of the concept rasa) of Indian music is located somewhere ‘between the notes’ remains true. The hint that Kesar Bai makes of the minor second is indeed very convincing and powerful. She evidently heavily exaggerates the lowness of this minor second. For starters let me stress that there is no accident here. Throughout the performance Kesar Bai’s intonation is very precise, and I have demonstrated elsewhere that Indian vocalists have great control over intonation (Meer, 2000), in some cases down to a few cents. It is well-known that ‘great’ artists (I am using the term great here in the sense of renowned, famous) tend to ‘play more with intonation then younger and less known musicians, i.e. they use more ‘standard’ intonation. As in all of the examples I am going to discuss, the reaction of the audience is not referring only to the last few notes. We have to look at the context, because that will provide the buildup that makes the final expression meaningful. Surely, in the case of an artiste of Kesar Bai’s calibre, the whole piece has a design. It is event driven, in the sense that one choice leads to another (it is largely improvised), and the audience response plays an important role. But every phrase, and every set of phrases, every cycle of the rhythm, has a master-plan of its own, even if it is not pre-composed. In this particular case, just prior to the passage I am discussing she has emanated a prolonged major third, that obviously plays a pivotal role in her rendition of this complex raga. And then, at 128s, there is this remarkable sound, that strange peaked form, in which we clearly hear her voice going from the tonic to the fifth, then down back to the tonic, with a very short touch on the major third and a slightly longer minor second. Then from 129 to 136s a prolonged tonic, followed by a seventh from 136 to 139s, a pause (the image shows a tonic, but that is from the drone). Then she reiterates the seventh and follows with the suggested minor second. This movement forms a whole, and so it would be inappropriate for the audience to interrupt it with approval. What I am suggesting here, is that the audience is not only approving of the extremely flat minor second, but also of the whole phrase leading up to it. In fact, if we would isolate the last portion, it would not have the same effect. What we hear (and see) in this passage is on the one hand an ostensible affirmation of one of the characteristic phrases of the raga Lalitagauri (B,Db,C), but at the same time using a minor second that is so extremely low that we could almost call it shocking.

By the way, there is a short “vah” also at 133, which I take to be an appreciation of the blending of the voice with the tanpura. Well-trained musicians in India have an uncanny level of ‘tunefulness’, what is referred to as ‘entering into the core of the note’. In the extensive measurements I have done on hundreds of recordings I have demonstrated that the tonic and the fifth are often statistically within 0.5 cents from the 0 cents and 702 cents positions.

Movie 2: Pitch plot done with PRAAT of Kesar Bai Kerkar’s Lalitagauri 135-155s (vertical axis: semitone scale position x 100 cents, horizontal axis: time in seconds).

The second excerpt continues from the first one, and overlaps with it. There is, in this frame, another reaction from the audience to the passage at 153-54s. This is a typical ornamentation called murki (a kind of mordent). The basic pattern is C-Db-C-BC-B—- (SRSNSN8), but obviously PRAAT has not captured this in an unambiguous manner. Faster movements pose serious problems of interpretation in graphs, as I have discussed elsewhere (van der Meer and Rao, 2006). I have included a stretched view (2b) of this ornamentation, in which we can clearly observe how the graphical representation is very different from what we actually hear, even if this is not a very fast movement, compared to the more common manner in which murki is performed. This is actually typical of the school to which Kesar Bai belonged, the Jaipur gharana (tradition, school), as opposed to the more rapid and jerky manner of making such ornaments in most other schools. I would estimate that the reaction of the audience to this particular event is related to the slow and deliberate execution of the ornament. There is no reason to believe that the reaction has anything to do with the interpretation of the raga, instead it is the elegance of the ornamentation itself that triggers the response.

Movie 3: Pitch plot done with PRAAT of Kesar Bai Kerkar’s Lalitagauri 195-215s (vertical axis: semitone scale position x 100 cents, horizontal axis: time in seconds).

The next passage (Figure 3) starts from the tonic (196-202s), after which she sings the same murki that we have seen in example 2 (203-204s), followed by the movement 11-0-1-4 (B C Db E from 203-213s)). There is a clear audience reaction immediately after the major third from 208 to 213s. This major third is typically ‘harmonic’ (just intonation), probably even lower than the 386 cents of the harmonic major third of 5/4 (my measurements indicate it is approximately 375 cents). This seems to corroborate the idea that she intentionally exaggerates the ‘desired’ intonation,9 which is clearly appreciated by the audience. I need to stress here that it is quite unlikely that this intonation would be a random coincidence or ‘error’ by the performer. I have demonstrated elsewhere (van der Meer, 2000) that intonation in Hindustani music is extremely controlled and precise, and even if we accept that the cassette recording may have considerable fluctuations in speed/pitch this would not affect the relative positions of intonations within their context. But here it is not only about the remarkably low intonation of the major third, it is also about the way she slowly rises from the minor second upwards by a long drawn glide (mind). We saw in figure 2 an example of slow ornamentation of the murki-type, and here we have an example of a slow glide (if we can call it ornamentation at all – as the spaces between the notes seem to play as crucial a role as the notes themselves or even more so). In this case we can safely say that the movement is part of Lalitagauri’s ethos, but that its expressivity is also of a more general nature resulting from the elegance of rendering the ornament and intonation; first rising slowly from the minor second to the major third, and then holding the steady major third at a very low position. I may add that in India there is strong sensitivity about this harmonic major third as it is very audible in the drone (tanpura). This major third is referred to as svayambhu gandhara (the major third that is inherent in the drone, i.e. the fifth partial). In fact the tempered major third is felt to be extremely dissonant.

Movie 4: Pitch plot done with PRAAT of Kesar Bai Kerkar’s Lalitagauri 260-280s (vertical axis: semitone scale position x 100 cents, horizontal axis: time in seconds).

Also this fourth excerpt contains a melodic movement towards the major third. The movements I have discussed all reflect the raga Lalitagauri, but it is in this passage that some of the most characteristic features of the raga are highlighted. This is particularly marked at the beginning (260-265s), by the phrase F# E Db E Db C C. This phrase is highly characteristic of the raga Gauri (as explained before the raga Lalitagauri is a combination of ragas Gauri and Lalit) and appears very often throughout the performance. It is however the subtle manner by which she steps upward from 272s onward that impresses most. Though the words are unintelligible the vocal inflections give the movement a distinct touch of the intimacy of speech in music. The brisk peaks at 272 and 274s are hardly discernible by ear but yet, we do notice that there are delicate touches that convey the idea of a parlando style of singing. Of course, there is also an element of timing, a kind of speech-like freedom from the musical rhythm. Completely liberated from the pulse of the rhythm, the consonants seem to move independently in their own way. It should be noted that the major third at which this movement ends is quite flat again (380 cents), like the major third in movie 3.

Figure 5: Pitch plot done with PRAAT of Kesar Bai Kerkar’s Lalitagauri 320-340 (vertical axis: semitone scale position x 100 cents, horizontal axis: time in seconds). In the previous figure we saw the Gauri aspect of Lalitagauri being rendered, and in this passage it is the Lalit aspect that comes to the fore. First she moves upward B Dd E (320-326), a movement that is repeated with a faster attack (327-329) and then the chromatic passage E F F# E is repeated four times, with increasing speed and adding small touches in such a way that the two fourths (F and F#) seem to turn round and round with E as a base. Below I have schematically rendered this in staff notation: 

N r G – – , r G – , m M G mMGmMGmG – – –

lalitagauri 5

Figure 6: Schematic transcription of the pitch plot of figure 5. The audience response is clearly heard at 335s, and obviously a reaction to the well executed pattern that so characteristically delineates the raga Lalit.

A large part of the recording is also on line at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kCmboWq5kNY

For additional information on Lalitagauri see: Lalita gauri at the AUTRIM site

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Cultural Evolution: A Case Study of Indian Music

Posted on November 21, 2012. Filed under: cultural musicology, music | Tags: , , , |

wim-pictOriginally published in Sangeet Natak, Journal of the Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi, Vol. 35, Jan-Mar. 1975, p. 49-65.

Apart from the fact that this issue is not easily found, it must also be added that the editor had not sent the text for proofreading nor had she done any checking herself. As a result (and also because of the then prevalent system of typesetting), the article was virtually unintelligible due to many typographical errors.

With the renewed interest in evolutionary musicology and the rise of memetics in music, this article may be of interest. I think it is one of the earliest statements of a neo-darwinian approach to music.

Meer – Cultural evolution, A Case Study of Indian Music (Sangeet Natak 35, 1975)

to the left: the author in younger days … though later than 1975

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